PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . Staff credits: The people who made up the Understanding and. Using English Grammar, Fourth Edition, Teacher's Guide team, representing editorial, production. GRAMMAR. Third Edition with ANSWER KEY. BB. Longman. Betty Schrampfer Azar . Understanding and Using English Grammar Workbook, Second Edition.
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Cover design: Monika Popowitz. The Library of Congress has cataloged the book as follows: Azar, Betty Schrampfer. Understanding and using English grammar. Azar, Betty Scrampfer, Basic English grammar I Betty Schrampfer Azar. -- 2nd ed. D. cm. 1ncludes indexes. ISBN ISBN (v. For the Azar Companion Website, visit longmanxom/gmmmanxchanga. Longman English Success (englishsucnrsxom) offers online courses.
New exercises on form and meaning. Open-ended tasks for both speaking and writing. Two Appendices, one with phrasal verbs, one with preposition combinations.
Workbook devoted solely to self-study exercises. Student Book available with or without Answer Key. Song Lessons for Fundamentals of English Grammar Basic English grammar. In these cases, it is not possible to give a definite time for the completion of the activity. Whether you want to conduct the activity entirely in class more teacher- controlled or send students out on their own will also affect the time needed for completion. They may be photocopied for class use. Also, do not feel you must use them as is.
Instead, use them as models for your own worksheets. For example, if you have covered only the first half of the irregular verb list, you will not want to use a worksheet for Concentration that includes words from the entire verb list. Make your own worksheet that is appropriate to your class. Some of the activities are more fun and effective if you use the names of students in your class.
If, for example, no one in your class is married, it makes no sense to use a worksheet that requires the students to find someone who is married. On the other hand, many of the worksheets are generic and can be used in any class. You can use the printed worksheet the first time you do the activity and then, if you are reviewing at the end of the quarter or semester, make your own based on the model. Do not hesitate to adapt. There are many ways to divide your class into groups.
The simplest and quickest is to group them where they sit, which you will do occasionally, especially if pressed for time. But because students tend to sit next to the same students, it is beneficial to have them work with other classmates during these activities. When the students work on the exercises in their textbook, they probably work with those sitting next to them.
Doing any of the activities in this book, then, provides a good excuse for mixing up the class. Here are a few suggestions for ways to divide the class into pairs or groups.
Count off. Decide how many groups you will need usually determined by the size of the class and have the students count off up to that number, then repeat.
Group all the 1s together, all the 2s together, and so on. Cut-up cards. Postcards work well for this activity, or you can use magazine covers. Cut each picture into the number of pieces according to the size of the groups you want a minimum of three in each group.
Hand out one piece to each student. The students circulate, trying to put the pictures back together. The students holding the pieces of each picture are the members of that group. The first time you do this activity, the students usually think that once they have put the picture together, the activity is over and they can return to their original seats. They may or may not wonder what this has to do with grammar.
Therefore, you may need to call them back to get into the groups formed by their pictures. Try to use similar cards so that the students have to fit the pieces together, not just look for someone with a piece of the same color.
If you pick up multiples of the same postcard while on your vacation, you may want to try using all the same card, but be sure to cut them differently.
This method works well if you have an odd number of students. Cut some cards into four and others into three, and use the ones you need on any given day. Having sets of cards cut into different amounts will also help you group quickly when one or more students are absent. Deck of cards. There are three ways you can use a deck of cards to group students. First, have students get into groups by the number of the cards they are holding all 2s in one group, all 3s in another, etc.
If, for example, you have seventeen students, you would separate out four 2s, four 3s, three 4s, three 5s, and three 6s. Another way to use a deck of cards is to group students by suit all hearts in one group, all clubs in another. This limits you to having four groups at most. You can also group students by card color. Obviously, this limits you to two groups, but the method works well for pairs or teams. For team division, half the class would receive red cards, the other half, black.
For pair division, use a combination of color and number: Cards work well in dividing students for jigsaw activities by combining two of these methods. Imagine that you want to divide students into small groups and then, after a certain activity, divide the original groups and have one member of each group form a new group. This can be accomplished by having students get into groups by number. When you are ready to split them up again, have them reform by suit. Paper draw. This is a quick way to group, especially if you forget to bring your cards.
There are two ways to do it simply. The easiest is to cut or tear up pieces of colored paper such as five pieces of red, five pieces of blue, four pieces of green. If you do not have colored paper, simply cut up enough pieces of paper for your class and number them or if you want to be creative, use nouns—dogs, cats, and so on.
All students with the same number or noun category form a group. Class list. Group the class by reading off names from the class list. For example, skip every other name. The first three names you call form one group. Then continue with the next three names.
You can start from the top, the bottom, or somewhere in between. You may need to mark off names as you call them to avoid getting confused. Student choice. To form pairs, you can put the names of half of the class on papers in a bag, then have the other half pick out a name to be a partner.
You can put the name of every other student in the bag, or the names of the first half of the class list. This can be a somewhat controlled pairing, so if you have some strong and some weak students, put the names of the strong students in the bag and have the weaker ones pull the names out. This avoids having two very strong or two very weak students pairing up. Keep track of whose name is in the bag so you know who should be picking out a name.
You can also do this by nationality.
If your class is fairly well divided between two nationalities, put the names of all one nationality in the bag and have the others draw names.
Even if your class is not divided neatly in half, this can be useful. If you have a large group of the same nationality who hesitate to mix, put all their names in the bag or have them all draw names so they cannot possibly end up with one another. This division is also for pairs. Prepare some quick matching activity related to the grammar point or to review one.
For example, you might prepare cards, half of which are questions and the other half, answers. Distribute them and have the students find their match. There are other ways to divide into groups that work well in a conversation class.
In a grammar class the time is usually limited and it is not possible to spend much time on activities not directly related to grammar. If you have more time or teach an integrated-skills class, you may find some other method useful occasionally.
For example: Have students line up according to some criterion such as hair color or birth month. Once they have formed the line, divide them into groups the first four, the next four, and so on.
Have all students whose favorite season is spring go to one corner, summer to another, and so on. This method has a few disadvantages: Any interest can work: If it works, this is a fun way to divide, but it is not as predictable as some of the other methods described above. Although a certain number is sometimes necessary Tic Tac Toe with handout, for example , this is just a guide for the instructor.
How many students you put into each group will depend mainly on how many students are in your class. It may be better to form a group of three so one student does not feel singled out.
Do not let one student work alone. When dividing into small groups, use your judgment. Again, the division will be a direct result of the number of students in your class. While it is nice to have even groups, it is not always possible. Keep the numbers as close as possible. If you are doing groups of five and then are left with two students, do not let them work as a pair. Either have two groups of six or create a new group by borrowing students from some of the other groups.
What happens when your groups are all set up and working and a student walks in late? If you have some smaller groups, add the late student to one of them. Just remember to be flexible. Even when an activity calls for a specific number because of assigned roles, a different- sized group can be accommodated.
Simply assign two members of the group to the same role and have them split the role. In particular, my colleagues at UC Irvine—Extension have encouraged me and helped me to clarify these activities by offering feedback and requesting activities for specific grammar points. Some of these games and activities, which were developed and refined in my classes over the years, were created with instructors who are no longer at UCI—Extension, but I would like to acknowledge their valuable input.
In addition, I would like to acknowledge the invaluable help of several individuals. Betty Azar has been indispensable in helping me find my way through the publishing world. She has encouraged me and was always available to talk ideas through.
I greatly value the opinions and help of Ellen Bartlett. In addition to submitting several activities to this book, she gave me feedback on many of the activities, reminded me of others we had done at different times in our careers, and reviewed the entire manuscript. Most important, perhaps, was her enthusiasm for the project and her overall support. Mary Woodward, who unofficially contributed ideas to the book, also supported this project from its beginning.
Her assistance with day-to-day activities freed me to concentrate on writing. I also want to thank Kyle Woodward for his support and encouragement, for his help with computer problems, and for the time he spent at the computer, helping to put the manuscript into its final form. Finally, I would like to thank all the instructors who contributed activities to this book. Acknowledgments for specific games and activities are due to the following individuals: Petersburg, Florida: Present 1.
Worksheet 1 Dynamic: Whole class Time: Another way to do this is to use the attendance list, block out everything but the name column, then draw lines across.
Give each student a copy of the handout. Instruct students to cross out their name and the names of any absent students. Instruct students to circulate and find one thing they have in common with each other student on the list. They must find a different thing for each student. For example, Soheyla might write: We both like sports.
We both have dark hair. We both have two older brothers. We both drive a car. When they have finished, the students sit down. Ask which verb tense they used most often simple present and why facts. If the students cannot provide these answers, give them clues by soliciting some of the sentences they wrote down. Ask if these are true statements, etc. For fun and to learn more about the students, ask individual students at random what they have in common with someone on their list.
It would take too long to go over all the answers. You may want to collect the papers to use as a source of information for preparing other activities or exercises. This is a good culmination game at a lower level, after completing the present tense chapter.
It also works well as a review for higher students to see if they remember why they use the present tense. Worksheet 2 Dynamic: Distribute one copy of the worksheet to each student. Tell students to circulate, asking the questions on the worksheet.
On the worksheet: Are you afraid of spiders? Student B: Yes, I am. Not all students may be able to complete every entry. If they have asked all their classmates a question and no one has said yes, they can also sit down. You can limit answers to only one yes answer per student.
This avoids students pairing up and talking to only one or two other students. Strips with answers Worksheet 3 Dynamic: Divide the class into pairs or groups of three or four. Give each group several strips with short answers on them.
Have the students work together to write questions for the answers. The members of each group can take turns reading their questions and answers aloud, or one student can read for the group. The rest of the class judges whether the questions are appropriate for their answers. None Dynamic: There should be an even number of groups if possible. Group 1: Yes, I do. Group 2: Do you walk to school?
Was John late for class? Am I from Korea? Yes, they did. Did they leave at Did Keiko lend you her car? Put the two groups together and have them return the answer papers.
The group who wrote the answers checks that the questions are appropriate. This activity can be adapted to a higher level by using different tenses, such as a mixture of perfect tenses. Before dividing your class into pairs, tell them what tense to use or, for the higher-level class, if the activity is intended to be a verb review. Worksheet 4 optional Dynamic: Pairs Time: Divide the class into pairs.
Assign each pair a different topic to discuss. Partner A can use the worksheet questions as a guideline, but encourage students to think of other, more specific questions.
For low-level students, you may want to provide answers for partner B or have the partners work together to create answers. Higher-level students can use the worksheet as a guide and then develop their own questions based on the situation. Have the students practice their questions and answers several times. They will do a telephone role play for the class, so they should be familiar with the questions and answers.
Circulate, helping the pairs with their grammar and checking their answers. The partners take turns presenting their role plays to the rest of the class. Worksheet 5 Dynamic: Go over question formation if necessary. If this is used as a review, the students should be able to form questions from the prompts. Give a copy of the handout to each student. Tell them to circulate, asking their classmates questions as indicated by the prompts on the bingo card.
If the student answers no, they continue asking until they find someone who answers yes. As in Bingo, there are several ways to win. The first student who gets five names in a row wins. The first student who fills in the four corners wins. The first student who completes the board wins. The first student who makes a cross wins third row down and third row across. Use any other variation you choose. After you have a winner, go over the tense used and why fact or habit?
Make your own grid from information you know about your students. They will be more likely to be able to complete the game. Use at holiday times with prompts geared to the holiday. Has seen a ghost, Will go to the costume party tonight, Has eaten candy corn, Knows what a ghoul is.
Choose a category, such as famous people, occupations, food, or animals. Choose one student to answer questions from the rest of the class. Show the student a piece of paper with a word telling what he or she is an object or person in the category.
This student sits in front of the class and may answer only yes or no to any question. If the class does not guess correctly, the student wins. Although this is based on the popular Twenty Questions game, you may want to vary the number of questions the class can ask.
Be sure to make the number clear before the game begins. To make the game more challenging, especially at the higher levels, omit step 1 so that the students use up some of their questions determining the category. Small pictures Dynamic: Tape a small picture on the back of each student, staying within the same category, such as famous people or occupations. The responding students look at the picture on the back of the questioner before answering.
Circulate around the class to help out if the students are not sure of an answer. In the example below, the first two questions can be answered with yes or no just by looking at the picture. The third question requires that the student know the identity of the person in the picture. Am I a woman? Do I have blond hair? Am I a singer? If it is not a competition, set a time limit and try to have as many students discover their identities as possible.
When students discover their identity, have them continue to participate by answering questions from those students who are still trying to guess their identity. CLUE Materials: This is another variation of Twenty Questions. Choose one student to come to the front of the class. This student will be given an identity and will give clues to the class.
Before starting the game, discuss strategy with the class. Tell them that the student who is giving clues will give the most difficult clues first and the easiest last. Many people like me. You can watch me. It is or I am done outdoors. You need a mitt to play. If the class guesses the identity, it wins. If the class cannot guess the identity after a preannounced number of clues between 5 and 10 , the student wins. Send one student out of the room. Give the class an identity for that student, discuss clue strategy, and go over possible clues.
When the student returns, the class members begin giving clues. Otherwise, the class wins. Prepare one card for each student. The words should be large and in dark ink so that all the students will be able read them. Depending on the size of the class, you may have to duplicate cards or play in two rounds. For example, divide the class in half and have the first group come to the front of the class.
When they are finished, have the second group come up. The students form a circle, either sitting or standing. Ask who has the best memory. I never eat fast food. I always brush my teeth. I seldom study for tests. Student 1: Student 2: I always brush my teeth, and Jae never eats fast food.
Student 3: I seldom study for tests, Akiko always brushes her teeth, and Jae never eats fast food. Student 4: I usually go to bed at 11, Maria seldom studies for tests, Akiko always brushes her teeth, and Jae never eats fast food.
Any soft ball or beanbag Dynamic: Arrange students in a circle, either standing or at their desks. Ask a question using a frequency adverb, and toss the ball to a student. Do you always eat breakfast before coming to class? How often do you wear jeans to class? The student who catches the ball must answer, using a frequency adverb in a complete sentence. The same student then asks a question with a frequency adverb and tosses the ball to a classmate.
Frequency adverbs Materials: Worksheet 6 Dynamic: Give each student a copy of the worksheet, and have students interview each other, writing the answers on their worksheet. Have the pairs work together to do Part 2. Share answers from Part 1 with the entire class. Check the answers for Part 2 and discuss any incorrect ones with the group. Magazines or catalogs Dynamic: Small groups Time: Divide the class into groups of three or four.
Give each group several catalogs or magazines. You may want to ask each student the previous day to bring in a magazine or catalog. Have each group make ten sentences, using a form of to be or to have. The man has a hat. The man is tall. Have the groups read their sentences aloud while showing the class the pictures the sentences describe.
To make it a competition, the first group that shows you 20 correct sentences wins. For a higher group, you may want to assign more sentences. Worksheet 7 Dynamic: Groups Time: Cut up Worksheet 7 into separate situations. Divide the class into groups of approximately four, and give each group a different situation card.
Instruct the groups to make a list of things they need and want for the situation on their card. You may want to limit them to five items each. Each group reads its situation and tells what it needs and wants, and why. You may fill in the blanks on the worksheet before distributing to the class, or the class can name a popular singer and actor.
Teams Time: Divide the board in half. On each side, write the words progressive and nonprogressive. Divide the class into two teams.
Have each team form a line. The first person from each team comes to the board. Call out a verb. The students check either progressive or nonprogressive. Have students check in front of the words on the board. You will have to erase the checks between rounds. After each verb, the students at the board are replaced by two more students for the next verb.
The team with the most points at the end of the game wins. Both speed and accuracy are important. Call out a verb, and toss the ball to a student. The student who catches the ball answers progressive or nonprogressive, then tosses the ball to another classmate while calling out another verb.
Worksheet 8, or small pieces of paper similar to Worksheet 8 Dynamic: Cut up Worksheet 8 into activities, or make your own. One student comes to the front of the class, draws a piece of paper with an activity on it, and acts out the activity silently. The students can take turns acting out the activities, or you can divide the class into teams.
If the team guesses correctly in the allotted time 30 seconds? This keeps all students involved. If you make up your own activities rather than using the worksheet, make the activities involved.
Worksheet 9 or pictures with a lot of activity going on Dynamic: Small group Time: Give each group the same picture, or put it on an overhead. Instruct the groups to describe the picture in as many sentences as possible in the time allowed, using the present progressive.
The sentences must be grammatically correct and accurately depict what is happening in the picture. Each group reads its sentences or writes them on the board. The group with the most correct sentences wins. Give each group a different picture. Variation 2: Follow step 2.
Continue until all groups have written sentences for all pictures. Score the correct answers as in step 3. Good sources for pictures are a picture dictionary especially if the students have the same one , lower-level student ESL books containing drawings for students to discuss or write about, and magazine advertisements.
Sample answers: Have the class speculate on what their family members are doing at that time. Ask questions of students at random. Is your mother making breakfast?
Is your mother working? Is your brother watching TV? Is your brother attending classes at the university? Be sure the student provides only the names of family members in step 2 and does not give any additional information. Just have each student give the relationships: I have a brother and a mother.
Each student writes a one-sentence description of a classmate on a piece of paper, without giving the name of the person being described. She is wearing sandals. He has a mustache. She is wearing a dress and has short hair. Take turns reading the descriptions aloud. The other students try to guess who is being described. Ask students to imagine a place where they would like to be. Basic English Grammar by Betty Azar, Third Edition is a developmental skills text for students of English as a second or foreign language.
Serving as both a reference and a workbook, it introduces students to the form, meaning, and usage of basic structures in English. It provides ample practice through extensive and varied written and oral exercises. In it, you will find notes on the content of each unit, suggestions for exercises and classroom activities, and answers to the exercises.
General teaching information can be found in the Introduction. It includes the rationale and general aims of Basic English Audio tracks for a cool book. It provides ample practice through extensive and varied Longman, , English language: Textbooks for foreign speakers.
Problems, exercises, etc. An introduction to the form, meaning, and usage of basic structures in English. A developmental skills approach that encourages speaking, listening, writing, and.
Reading abilities through a wide variety of exercises. Reference text and workbook in Pearson Esl, Pearson Longman Date: Hagen, offers concise, accurate, level-appropriate grammar information with an abundance of exercises, contexts, and classroom activities. New features New features of Basic This manual was issued in , but you can safely say that so far is one of the best textbook for Third Edition. These PowerPoint presentations are visual aids for teachers to use in class.
They are correlated to the text and contain all new content for every grammar chart in every chapter. Color, animation and photographs are used in effective and exciting ways to enhance your existing lessons.
Fundamentals of English Grammar by Betty Schrampfer Azar is a developmental skills text for lower-intermediate and intermediate students of English as a second or foreign language. It combines clear and understandable grammar information with a variety of exercises and activities.